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Page | 1 Budget Analysis Department of Homeland Security
Page | 2 Introduction The agency that this paper will conduct a budget analysis on in the Department of Homeland Security. Every October the Federal Government passes the annual budget to fund government agencies and other interests in the United States. Even though the budget is signed in October, implementing the budget, along with deciding who gets what, is an ongoing process. The President submits his annual budget to Congress the first Monday in February. This is then followed by Congress having a budget resolution. Once this is completed the U.S. House and the U.S. Senate appropriations committees meet to discuss the budget along with different subcommittees. Once the House and the Senate come to a resolution on the budget, it is sent to the President to be signed. Once the budget is passed it turns into a law. In addition to the budget being a public policy, the process of annual budgets is shaped by different laws. One of these laws is the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921. This act established the Bureau of the Budget that is today known as the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that review budget proposals from government agencies. To ensure accountability of resources for Congress, the General Accounting Office was also created under the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921. Another law that helps shapes the budget is the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993. This act deals with how to measure the performance of the budget. It also includes the primary legislative framework. The parts of the framework include a strategic plan, performance plan, and performance report. The strategic plan includes the mission statement, and goals and objectives that are outcome related. The performance plan includes measurable performance goals by the program activity. The performance report compares the program performance achieved to the goals indicated in the performance plan. The Act was updated in 2010 to add a more coordinated approach to reach common goals, and address weaknesses in management functions.
Page | 3 In addition it aims to have sustained leadership accountability and commitment to achieve results. The Anti-deficiency Acts of 1921 and 1950 stops the expenditure of government funds that are more than the amount appropriated by Congress. Once the budget is passed it does not guarantee the same amount of funding for one program is the following year as different government priorities help shape the budget. In addition you have to take into account political parties agenda as different parties believe in different ways to fund the government. The majority of the governments funding comes from taxes paid by businesses, and citizens taxes. When that is not enough the US borrows money from the US treasury to cover the budget. When the budget cannot agreed upon the government faces a shutdown with just only the essential functions operating. Through this budget analysis the evaluation should give a clear eyed view into what components make up the fiscal budget, budget issues, how political conflicts and revenue changes affect the budget and the department. The structure of this paper flows into each other giving a complete and thorough view in to the budget of Homeland Security and a proper analysis that clearly depicts all aspects of the fiscal budget for this government agency. Organizational History, Purpose, and Goals Department of Homeland Security” or (DHS) is a government agency that was created in 2002 under the Bush administration. Department of Homeland Security is an umbrella for what is the nation’s endeavor or exertion to safeguard a nation making it safe, protected, and irrepressible against threats and efforts of terrorism and hazards whether it be natural or manmade that would otherwise effect American interests, objectives, and ambitions so that life in the United States can prosper and flourish. The functions of the Department of Homeland Security “involves passing laws and writing new policy, fighting crime, and preventing
Page | 4 terrorism, among other things; Homeland security is about protecting the freedoms we’re afforded in the United States, while also ensuring citizens are safe.” (Master of Homeland Security , 2015) This department runs under specialized security functions and Operational and Support Components. Homeland Security categorizes their functions and operational support of protection that is used to better provide protection to the United States. This public policy function organizes it departments as United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), (USCIS)” secures America’s promise as a nation of immigrants by providing accurate and useful information to our customers, granting immigration and citizenship benefits, promoting an awareness and understanding of citizenship, and ensuring the integrity of our immigration system” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP), (CBP) “is one of the Department of Homeland Security’s largest and most complex components, with a priority mission of keeping terrorists and their weapons out of the U.S. It also has a responsibility for securing and facilitating trade and travel while enforcing hundreds of U.S. regulations, including immigration and drug laws” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015) United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), (USCIS) “secures America’s promise as a nation of immigrants by providing accurate and useful information to our customers, granting immigration and citizenship benefits, promoting an awareness and understanding of citizenship, and ensuring the integrity of our immigration system” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP), (CBP) “is one of the Department of Homeland Security’s largest and most complex components, with a priority mission of keeping terrorists and their weapons out of the U.S. It also has a responsibility for securing and facilitating trade and travel while enforcing
Page | 5 hundreds of U.S. regulations, including immigration and drug laws” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), United States Coast Guard (USCG), (USCG) “is one of the five armed forces of the United States and the only military organization within the Department of Homeland Security. The Coast Guard protects the maritime economy and the environment, defends our maritime borders, and saves those in peril” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), (FEMA) “supports our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain, and improve our capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate all hazards” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), (FLETC) “provides career-long training to law enforcement professionals to help them fulfill their responsibilities safely and proficiently” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), (ICE) “promotes homeland security and public safety through the criminal and civil enforcement of federal laws governing border control, customs, trade, and immigration” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), Transportation Security Administration (TSA), (TSA) “protects the nation’s transportation systems to ensure freedom of movement for people and commerce” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), United States Secret Service (USSS), (USSS) “safeguards the nation’s financial infrastructure and payment systems to preserve the integrity of the economy, and protects national leaders, visiting heads of state and government, designated sites, and National Special Security Events” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), Directorate for Management, (DFM) “is responsible for budget, appropriations, expenditure of funds, accounting and finance; procurement; human resources and personnel; information technology systems; facilities, property, equipment, and other material resources; and identification and tracking of
Page | 6 performance measurements relating to the responsibilities of the Department” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), National Protection and Programs Directorate, “The goal of the National Protection and Programs Directorate is to advance the Department’s risk-reduction mission. Reducing risk requires an integrated approach that encompasses both physical and virtual threats and their associated human elements” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), Science and Technology Directorate, (STD) “is the primary research and development arm of the Department. It provides federal, state and local officials with the technology and capabilities to protect the homeland” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, “The mission of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office is to prevent nuclear terrorism by continuously improving capabilities to deter, detect, respond to, and attribute attacks, in coordination with domestic and international partners” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), Office of Health Affairs, (OHA) “provides medical, public health, and scientific expertise in support of the Department of Homeland Security mission to prepare for, respond to, and recover from all threats” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), Office of Intelligence and Analysis, “The Office of Intelligence and Analysis equips the Homeland Security Enterprise with the intelligence and information it needs to keep the homeland safe, secure, and resilient” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), Office of Operations Coordination, “The Office of Operations Coordination is responsible for monitoring the security of the United States on a daily basis and coordinating activities within the Department and with governors, Homeland Security Advisors, law enforcement partners, and critical infrastructure operators in all 50 States and more than 50 major urban areas nationwide” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015), and lastly Office of Policy, “The DHS Office of Policy serves as the Department’s principal source of thought leadership, policy development, and decision analysis
Page | 7 for DHS senior leadership, Secretarial initiatives, and for other critical matters that may arise in a dynamic threat environment.” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015) Homeland Security are service providers that categorizes services as Immigration and Border Security, Cybersecurity, Counterterrorism, and Disaster Response and Recovery. Immigration and Border Security provides border safety through monitoring the traffic of illegal persons attempting and those who enter the United States Illegally. “Department of Homeland Security (DHS) works with other federal agencies to conduct high-impact criminal investigations to disrupt and defeat cyber criminals, prioritize the recruitment and training of technical experts, develop standardized methods, and broadly share cyber response best practices and tools.” (Department of Homeland Security, 2015) Counterterrorism is the action of Homeland security to combat terrorism in any form. And lastly disaster response and recovery is department within Homeland Security that “helping communities reduce their risk, helping emergency officials prepare for all hazards, and helping people get back on their feet after their lives are disrupted by a disaster.” (Department Homeland Security, 2015) These specialized functions with in DHS compile together to defend and protect the homeland the United States of America. The agency was created and or revived during Presidents George Bush’s stint as the leader of the free world. During his presidency the homeland was attacked by Islamic terrorist group known as Al- Qaeda. This group plan a very elaborate attack on American soil where, they took on the actions of aircraft hijacking, committing suicide attacks resulting in mass murder. On September 11th known in history as 9/11 two planes crashing into the twin towers “World Trade Center” and then into the Pentagon shortly after killing and injuring thousands of civilians in Manhattan, New York and Arlington, Virginia. The agency’s main purposed especially after the terrorist attacks was to combat all forms of terrorism preventing attacks, safeguarding American
Page | 8 interest, prevent or de-escalating threats. During Bush’s term Homeland Security direction was all about TSA and the harsh and extensive checking and background checking of those suspicious individuals entering the airports with the intent to board flights in and out of the United States, Border Patrol, and a divine emphasis advisory system that was color coded to vividly show the level of terrorism threats in the United States. In 2004 when Hurricane Katrina hit the Bush Administration took a lot of push back and flack over the handling and preparation of the deadly category 4 storm that devastated New Orleans leaving thousands dead, injury, and displaced from homes. There became a devout interest in the Disaster Response and Recovery specialization at DHS and a particular evaluated look into the needs and responsibility of FEMA. More than ten years later the leaders has changed, policy and politics has changes, the world has changed. Today terrorism is still a threat every day to the United States however, not nearly as detrimental as it was 14 years ago. Natural disasters are still occurring in 2012 superstorm Hurricane Sandy category 3 hit New Jersey with 115 mph winds causing over 75 billion dollars of damage. Due to the experience with Hurricane Katrina the response to Hurricane Sandy while it was not without flaw, through better leadership and experience was handled in a manner of improvement. Department of Homeland Security mission is still in tack and focuses are the same however the outputs are produced in a different way than how it was over ten years ago when Bush was in office with President Obama’s administration there is an emphasis on awareness an aid. The Obama administration makes a devout focus on writing legislation that directs preventative measures and presents DHS with an authority to handle public policy issues in a more democratic and covering all grounds way. Obama Administration definitely pays attention to detail and because of his administrative culture the budget reflects
Page | 9 that. The policy direction of the current budget Jeh Charles Johnson the Secretary of Homeland Security said is “The President’s Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Request of $41.2 billion for the Department of Homeland Security reflects our continued commitment to ensuring a homeland that is safe and secure. A safe and secure homeland is one in which the liberties of all Americans are assured, privacy is protected, and the means by which we interchange with the world-through travel, lawful immigration, trade, commerce, and exchange-are secured. The security of our Nation will continue to be tested by new and emerging threats. Through the tremendous dedication, focus, and professionalism of the Department’s workforce, and the resources requested by the President and Congress, we will address such challenges head-on. The FY 2016 Budget focuses resources on key capabilities in each of our mission areas. These include: preventing terrorism and enhancing security, securing and managing our borders, enforcing and administering our immigration laws, safeguarding and securing cyberspace, and strengthening national preparedness and resilience.” (The Department of Homeland Security , 2015). Budget Process Department of Homeland Security follows the same protocol as other federal agencies as it pertains to budgeting. The budget for Homeland Security is devised in accordance to fit the different segments of specialized services the agencies provides. The budget aligns itself according to the fiscal year (FY). Fiscal year is a financial year or budgetary year. This is a period of time in which calculations of yearly measures of finances both discretionary and non- discretionary spending is advised within agencies, organizations, and some companies. The budget process begins in early fall where federal agencies send budget request to the office of management and Budget (OMB). In November office of management and budget reviews
Page | 10 budgets, modify those budgets among government agencies, and then sends budgets back to agencies once revised. In the month of December agencies take time to make any final appeals to the office of management and budget. January is when OMB adjudicate appeals and gathers accumulates the finished budget request. After January, February thru March the President put forward budget request to Congress. Administration and the federal agency (in this case Department of Homeland Security) officials appear an attest for the budget request. Afterwards “the appropriations sub-committees (House and Senate) hold hearings with agency heads and outside public witnesses.” (AMS American Mathematical Society , 2015) A few months later in May the House and Senate approve budget resolutions arranged by Budget Committees. Then the Appropriations Committees makes allocations, provisions, and distributions. June is the month where the House Appropriations Sub-committees arrange appropriations bills. Senate Appropriations Sub-committees review the bills passed in House of Representatives. During July and August the House passes bills related to spending then Senate reviewed bills are passed. In September the House of Representatives and the Senate committees come up with resolutions and ultimately come to an agreement on final forms of bills related to spending; President will then either sign the bills or use his or her presidential power to veto final bills. On October 1st the starts the Beginning of the fiscal year. Congress passes ongoing resolutions to uphold and preserve funding for agencies “affected by appropriations bills that have not been passed and signed by the beginning of the fiscal year.” (AMS American Mathematical Society , 2015) Line- Item budget is defines by as “a budget in which the individual financial statement items are grouped by cost centers or departments. It shows the comparison between the financial data for the past accounting or budgeting periods and estimated figures for the current or a future period.” (, 2015) According
Page | 11 to a Program budget is the “identification and calculation of revenues and costs associated with the delivery of services and activities over a significant period of time. A good example of program budgeting in the context of a sport organization occurs when calculations are made to find the probable revenues and costs associated with providing coaching, clothing, competition fixtures and pitches to all junior members of a football club for a season (i.e. the Junior Football program).” (, 2015) In accordance to the definitions of line-item budgeting and program budgeting it is my observation of the Department of Homeland Security budget is in fact a result of line- item budgeting and program budgeting. The reason why the department is a representation of both budgeting styles is because the budget is devised by department segments and the financial statements are based and compared to past fiscal years in addition the budget is depicted based on the activities and services each specialized component and segment Homeland Security offers as a service within its department. A budget is a tool for shaping measures of what to spend, describes allocation of restricted resources, and shows a path to advance adequate funding. However, the business of congressional budgeting correspondingly establishes a vital policymaking implementation, in addition presents a resource of compelling executive influence. However with ever federal agency there is political conflict that can effect budgets in a positive or negative manner. “From my perspective as Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), I can say with certainty that the current standoff has a real impact on our ability to ensure that a wide range of emergency personnel across the country have the resources they need to do their jobs and keep our communities safer and more secure.” (The Department of Homeland Security , 2015) On October 15th 2015 New York Times reports that Homeland Security Department “has
Page | 12 released thousands of complaints made about Customs and Border Protection to American Civil Liberties Union that reveal disturbing picture of way agency officials treat those they stop and search on Mexican border, including verbal abuse and racial profiling; accounts suggests some agents working along border regularly overstep limits of law and courtesy, rarely facing repercussions, due to patchwork oversight system governing agency.” (Santos, 2015) This type of unprofessional and insensitive behavior that takes places shows a flaw in cultural competency and poor business practices on the side of the federal government. This type of conflict reflects the behavioral problem of law enforcement taking place in the country currently; furthermore the federal government is supposed to set the bar high and be a higher standard for state and local enforcement to follow. If this behavior persist and remains prevalent will definitely effect the budget whether it’s an issue of training cost that needs to be implementing or an elimination of current employees and the hiring of new employees that are more suitable for the positions. On October 6th, 2015, Gen John Roth, inspector general for Homeland Security Department, reopens investigation into leak of information from Secret Service application of Republican Rep Jason Chaffetz, House committee chairman who had been critical of agency; inquiry will focus on statements made by Secret Service director Joseph P Clancy according to New York Times.” (Schmidt, 2015) From the article it is suggested that the application was made public. In fact several of the Secret Service agents had gotten admission into a database that contained the sensitive information. It was suggested from a secret service agent that head of agency of the public affairs department leaked the information to the news media. This is a major conflict for the Department of Homeland Security it poses a couple of issues one being morale and ethical component, accessibility issue, public relations issue, and national security breach. All of these issues most definitely are huge concerns for the departmental budget. The budget
Page | 13 would have to enlarge for lawsuits, legal representation, cybersecurity, employee replacements, and trainings as well. It could also backfire in the budget being made lesser due to controversy by (OMB) and executive order. October 2nd , 2015, “Obama administration officials say State Department’s reversal of promise that tens of thousands of highly skilled legal immigrant stuck in visa backlogs would advance in process was due to miscommunication with Homeland Security Department; many of those immigrants, some holding H1-B visas, have filed suit against government in response to the turnabout.” (Preston, 2015) This type of bait and switch clearly shows a lack of communication and a breach in the connect ability among government agencies and the Obama Administration. The lack of du diligences cost those qualified individuals financially and emotional as they were filled with joy after a long wait of approval in to the land of the free they were quickly dismantled and put back into the same position they were in before awaiting visas. “This revision seriously undermines the stability and predictability of our immigration system,” Representatives Zoe Lofgren and Michael Honda, both California Democrats, said in a statement.” (Preston, 2015) This unfortunate Faux pas that was implementing through Homeland Security, US State Department, and the Obama Administration is an ongoing conflict in which law suits have been filed for the seen unjust legality as it pertains to the visa giving and taking away situation; this mishap is a definite budget affect with the law suits and representation not to mention the backlash and negative press that is magnified on the actions and reactions of Homeland Security. The nature of budget conflict among the key actors over budget request in the Department of Homeland Security is that each departmental representative has a responsibility to represent that departments needs and to ensure that the committees that compile the budget for
Page | 14 the overall Department of Homeland Security has reflected the funding to best equip them with their individual departmental needs to function. The problem lies with the passion and belief that respective specialized components functions within each department feel as their needs should supersede everyone else. There is a fight for who is more influential in service providing and outputs to the American people as it pertains to safeguarding the country. Each department within the department of Homeland Security has an attitude of entitlement, a feeling of deserving higher funding due to view of prevalence and lucrative service providing nature to the American people. This type of personal investment and bias view towards respective departments and department initiatives can create conflict especially around the formulation and revisal of fiscal year budget. The budget actors find themselves in a persuasive war in which fund allocation is the star of the show making it inherently difficult to please every actor and every department or service provider within Homeland Security. Ultimately there will be push back and ill feelings towards the results of final budgets no matter how fairly they are conducted. Through observing and studying the Federal Budget of the Department of Homeland Security the researcher was able to conclude comparisons between Fiscal year budget for current and past year budget. The budget request for 2016 was 41.2 billion and the budget request for 2015 was 38.2 billion. 2015 in comparison to 2016 the request went up 3 billion dollars. “The FY 2016 Budget for DHS is $64.9 billion in total budget authority, $51.9 billion in gross discretionary funding, and $41.2 billion in net discretionary funding, and $4.0 billion in discretionary fees. As part of total DHS funding, $6.7 billion for the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) is provided separately from discretionary amounts, pursuant to the Budget Control Act of 2011.” (The Department of Homeland Secuirty , 2015) “The FY 2015 Budget for DHS is $60.9 billion in total budget authority, $49.0 billion in gross discretionary funding, $38.2 billion in net
Page | 15 discretionary funding, and $4.4 billion in discretionary fees. As part of total DHS funding, $6.4 billion for the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) is provided separately from discretionary amounts, pursuant to the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA).” (The Department of Homeland Secuirty , 2015) From the data provided for me in the Homeland Security budget and performance for the fiscal years 2016 and 2015 I noticed trends through comparisons such budget authority in 2016 was 64.9 billion 2015 60.9 billion the budget increased by 4 billion. Gross discretionary funding in 2016 was 51.9 billion 2015 49.0 billion the budget increased by 2.9 billion. Discretionary fees in 2016 was 4.0 billion in 2015 4.4 billion there was a slight decrease of 0.4. And finally the Disaster Relief Fund in 2016 was 6.7 billion in 2015 6.4 billion there was a slight increase of 0.3. The research can conclude from comparisons that the budget on average increases from year to year by a couple billion dollars are so, however, this is to be expected with economic changes and patterns and political conflicts and natural disasters. The Homeland Security site is user friendly and easy to access. The website is equipped with an abundance of information from the history of the agency, breakdown of each department within the department and there functions, a diagram of hierarchy of authority, detailed topics in which Homeland Security handle, how do I? link that helps navigate the website, get involved link that provides (awareness, campaigns, volunteer services to get citizens involved and to help combat and safeguard America), and lastly news link that provides awareness to current events and what is happening pertaining to Homeland Security issues. Citizen’s satisfaction with accessibility and software is high due to its easy access and understand durability of the site. The department strives to involve citizens with its efforts to help continue to keep the Homeland safe. Homeland Security performance measures used in the budget process are reports that paint a picture of budget success and performance tracking. “In participation with the Office of
Page | 16 Management and Budget (OMB) alternative approaches to Performance and Accountability Reporting, the Department publishes the reports listed here rather than the consolidated Performance and Accountability Report published in previous years.” (The Department of Homeland Security , 2015) there are few other reports used to calculate performance measures such as the “High-Dollar Overpayments Report” this is a quarterly report to rise the limpidity and public analysis of important inappropriate payments, “GAO High-Risk Improvement Plans” this report is the Department’s Combined Approach for High Risk Management, “Inspector General Reports and Resources”, “E-Government Act Report 2008”, and finally the “Quadrennial Homeland Security Review” a Review done by Homeland Security directed by the Secretary, this report frequent every four years. Revenue and Expenditure The Department of Homeland Security has to pay mandatory fees and trust funds every fiscal year within their budget. The areas in which the fees are accumulated are: Departmental Management and Operations (DMO), Analysis and Operations (A&O), Office of the Inspector General (OIG), U.S. Customs & Border Protection (CBP), U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement (ICE), Transportation Security Administration (TSA), U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), U.S. Secret Service (USSS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Health Affairs (OHA), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), FEMA: Grant Programs U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Services (USCIS), Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), Science &Technology Directorate (S&T), and Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). Like all federal aid comes from the taxing of its citizens. Major source of revenue comes from income tax, payroll tax, and corporate income tax. “The federal government
Page | 17 raises trillions of dollars in tax revenue each year, though a variety of taxes and fees. Some taxes fund specific government programs, while other taxes fund the government in general. When all taxes for a given year are insufficient to cover all of the government’s expenses the U.S. Treasury borrows money to make up the difference.” (National Priorities Project , 2015) Revenue source has changed due to inflation, economy, and the government freeze. During Obama Administration Budget closes loopholes reprimand businesses investing domestically and compensate companies that retain returns abroad, and utilizes savings formed to restructure infrastructure. In addition due to the Sequester and the recession, budget spending and revenue has changed dramatically. “When Congress failed to enact the balanced long-term deficit reduction required by the Budget Control Act of 2011, a series of automatic cuts known as sequestration went into effect, cancelling more than $80 billion in budgetary resources across the Federal Government in 2013.” (office of management & budget, 2015 ) “Sequestration cuts that took effect in March 2013 reduced the gross domestic product (GDP) by 0.6 percentage points and cost 750,000 jobs, according to the Congressional Budget Office (CBO).” (office of management & budget, 2015 ) “The Federal Government shutdown in October 2013 created further uncertainty and reduced growth in the fourth quarter of 2013 by at least 0.3 percentage points.” (office of management & budget, 2015 ) Due to the economic and political factors deficit spending is at a high. The expenditures of the Department of Homeland Security are servicing its objectives through the fiscal budget. Department of Homeland Security functions through line-item and program budget spending meaning that each departments activity is serviced through allocations of funds that are approved by committees, OMB, House of Representatives, Senate, and the Executive. When the final budget is revised and agreed on the allocation of departments are
Page | 18 distributed for agency services that align with the mission of the department and the overall overview of purpose. Homeland Security is currently involved in projects that will better equip the agency preparing, educating, and innovating stakeholders and agency personnel. “The Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency (HSARPA) supports cutting-edge research to produce revolutionary changes in technologies, new capabilities and threat and risk assessments for the Homeland Security Enterprise (HSE).” (Department of Homeland Security , 2015) The CSD Project is a project that generates and organizes data and informational resources, principles, structures, tools and technologies enabling unified and protected interactions amongst the department stakeholders. The “DHS S&T Resilient Systems Division’s (RSD) mission is to rapidly develop and deliver innovative solutions that enhance the resilience of individuals, communities and systems. RSD explores solutions that enable the whole community to prevent and protect against threats, mitigate hazards, effectively respond to disasters and expedite recovery.” (Department of Homeland Security , 2015) The Department of Homeland Security uses a cash management plan known as The 2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review. This review solidifies departmental “Unity of Efforts. Homeland Security through use of review shows imperative “linkages between the Department’s planning, programming, budgeting, and execution processes, ensuring that the Department invests and operates in a cohesive, unified fashion, and makes decisions that are transparent and collaborative to drive the Secretary’s strategic guidance to results.” (Department of Homeland Security- Secretary Jeh Charles Johnson , 2015) The 2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review endorsed mission structure of Department of Homeland Security by emphasizing initiatives: Prevent Terrorism and Enhance Security, Secure and Manage our Borders, Enforce
Page | 19 and Administer Our Immigration Laws, Safeguard and Secure Cyberspace; and, Strengthen National Preparedness and Resilience in order to achieving missions it entails unity of effort throughout the entire departments action and among partners and stakeholders. The funding requested for the Department of Homeland Security is a direct reflection of goal setting and mission driven spending. The need of the department are broken down in to the sub-departments within the agency in which each segment of Homeland Security has a goal and without the proper funding the goals of Homeland Security would not be reach. For instance if Disaster Response and Recovery did not receive a sizable budget and a natural disasters were to ensue such as a Hurricane to the magnitude of a Katrina, services provided by this particular department such as: serve Disaster Victims, Integrated preparedness, Incident Management, Disaster Logistics, Hazard Mitigation, Emergency Communications, Public Disaster Communications, and Continuity Programs would not be available to the public creating potential turmoil and chaos potential worse than the lack of resources given in New Orleans during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Conclusion In Conclusion the Department of Homeland Security is an agency structure that provides safety and safeguards a nation. Homeland Security has a big range of services that the department provides to the United States from cybersecurity, counterterrorism, immigration and border security, and lastly disaster response and recovery. Each of these specialized functions provided by the federal government provide aid, precautionary measures, and combat threats to life as we know it in the United States. The department of Homeland Security fiscal budget is both a representation of a line-item and program budget that seeks to equip each department with
Page | 20 the funds needed to adequately run the programs and services in which Homeland Security offers. Homeland Security has an enormous budget one in which for the current year the request for over 40 billion dollars. Through budget comparison the research was able to compile and draw conclusions that from the FY2016 to FY2015 the budget has increase on average by moderate to small amounts for the operational purposes of the Department of Homeland Security. There are always factors in revenue and revenue changes; factors such as the recession and sequester has affected the way the budget is structured as well as the revenue brought in to fund the budgets due to shifts in the economy causes deficit spending to increase and government borrowing to pick up the slack of loss ends. However, the mission and objectives of the department is still being reached although challenges in conflicts among the agency and political conflicts has effected and altered Homeland Security as a whole. With the fiasco of green card and visa approvals for highly skilled immigrants by the Obama Administration and then the sudden pull back of those green cards and visas by the department of Homeland security, left the department in the middle of media frenzy, legal battle, and an ethics issue where there is a question of judgement, functional, and communication issues. However, the Department of Homeland Security is still able to do the job it was set out to do safeguarding the homeland we have not fall victim to terrorist attacks, or fall victim to another incident such as Hurricane Katrina so despite pit falls and conflicts the budget has been able to equip the department with the funds and sources needed to keep America safe. In my opinion the Department of Homeland Security budget format is federally mandated and is not an issue in productions and outputs to the Homeland Security functions. The performance measures used by the Department of Homeland Security measures performance through various reporting mechanisms that I feel is thorough way of accessing performance.
Page | 21 Technology is always changing and it is important the Department of Homeland Security follows those trends. It is also imperative to adopt new cutting edge technology and software capabilities to better provide services to the Homeland. References AMS American Mathematical Society . (2015). Timeline of Federal Budget Process. Retrieved from American Mathematical Society : (2015). Line Item Budget . Retrieved from Department Homeland Security. (2015). Department Homeland Security. Retrieved from officialwebsite of Department Homeland Security: Department of Homeland Security . (2015). Homeland Security Advanced Research Projects Agency. Retrieved from the official website of Department of Homeland Security : Department of Homeland Security . (2015). Resilient Systems Division. Retrieved from the official webisite of the Department of Homeland Security : Department of Homeland Security. (2015). Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from official website of Department of Homeland Security : Department of Homeland Security. (2015). Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from official website of Department of Homeland Security: Department of Homeland Security- Secretary Jeh Charles Johnson . (2015). Fiscal Years 2014-2018 Strategic Plan . Washington, D.C. : Department of Homeland Security . (2015). Program Budgeting . Retrieved from Master of Homeland Security . (2015). What is the purpose & function of Homeland Security . Retrieved from Master of Homeland Security : National Priorities Project . (2015). Federal Revenue: Where Does The Money Come From . Retrieved from National Priorities Project : office of management & budget (2015 ). Fiscal Year 2016 Budget of the US Government. Washington, D.C.: office of management & budget . Preston, J. (2015). Miscalculation on Visa Disrupts Lives Of Highly Skilled Immigrants . Retrieved from New York Times : Santos, F. (2015). Border Patrol Accused of Profiling and Abuse . Retrieved from New York TImes :
Page | 22 epartment/index.html Schmidt, M. S. (2015). Investigation Reopens into Leak of John Chaffetz’s Secret Service Application . Retrieved from New York TImes : The Department of Homeland Secuirty . (2015). FY 2015 Budget- in-Brief . Retrieved from The Department of Homeland Secuirty : The Department of Homeland Secuirty . (2015). FY 2016 Budget-in-Brief . Retrieved from The official website of the Department of Homeland Secuirty : The Department of Homeland Security . (2015). Department of Homeland Security . Retrieved from The official website of Homeland Security : The Department of Homeland Security . (2015). Getting the Budget Process Back on Track. Retrieved from The Official Website of Homeland Security : The Department of Homeland Security . (2015). Performance and Accountability Reports . Retrieved from The Official Website of Department of Homeland Security :
Page 1 of 3 You must organize your Budget Analysis based on the following outline: Introduction Organizational History, Purpose, and Goals Budget Process Revenue and Expenditure Conclusion Note: You will score zero points for the assignment if you plagiarize or use ChatGPT, score zero points for an unlabeled response, and experience a 10-point deduction for each unanswered question. You will also score zero points for failure to include APA format in-text citations and bibliography. You must use Microsoft Word References tools for in-text citations and bibliography based on the following video @
Page 2 of 3 The following issues must be addressed in the Budget Analysis Paper. You will be deducted 5 points for the failure to address an issue Introduction • Describe what the paper is all about. • Explain how the subsequent sections of the paper relate to one another. Must have both real (not fake) in-text citations and real (not fake) references for all your evidence. Organizational History, Purpose, and Goals • Briefly discuss the history and purpose of the selected federal government agency. • Explain how the purpose of the selected federal government agency has changed with changing political, social, and economic circumstances. • Discuss the policy direction of the current budget of the selected federal government agency. Must have both real (not fake) in-text citations and real (not fake) references for all your evidence. Budget Process • Discuss the selected federal government agency’s budget process and cycle. • Explain the type of budget format the selected federal government agency follows: a line-item budget, a program budget, or both. • Discuss the political conflict evident in the budget process. • Explain the nature of conflict among key actors over budget requests. • Compare and contrast the current budget with at least a prior year’s budget and discuss trends over time. • Discuss the level of citizen satisfaction with the software capability of the selected federal government agency and with the priorities integrated into budget decisions. • Discuss the performance measures used in the budget process of the selected federal government agency. Must have both real (not fake) in-text citations and real (not fake) references for all your evidence.
Page 3 of 3 Revenue and Expenditure • Discuss the selected federal government agency’s revenue sources: user fees, property taxes, intergovernmental transfers, and so on. • Discuss changes in revenue sources. • Discuss how the selected federal government agency’s expenditures are servicing its objectives. • Discuss projects the selected federal government agency is pursuing and the reasons for pursuing the projects. • Explain the cash management plan of the selected federal government agency. • Describe the sufficiency of the revenues of the selected federal government agency for its goals. Must have both real (not fake) in-text citations and real (not fake) references for all your evidence. Conclusion • Summarize your paper. • Discuss how the selected federal government agency may be served better using a different budget format, performance measures, and/or software capabilities. Bibliography in APA format through Microsoft Word References tools in the following video @
Rose Smith
Clark Atlanta University
Dr Oyerinde
Budget Analysis
African Development Foundation
November 2, 2023
The United States African Development Foundation (USADF) is a governmental agency established in 1980 to support African states in pursuing economic progress and prosperity. The organization provides financial resources, technical support, and capacity-building initiatives to local enterprises, grassroots associations, and cooperatives to aid African marginalized populations. The primary objective of this initiative is to facilitate the empowerment of individuals and communities in Africa, enabling them to cultivate self-reliance, entrepreneurial skills, and sustainable approaches to addressing their financial challenges. There are several compelling justifications for doing a thorough analysis of the budget and financial obligations of the United States African Development Foundation (USADF). Firstly, it ensures the responsibility and openness of monies provided by US taxpayers. Using this evaluation, various stakeholders, legislators, and the wider public can determine the extent to which the agency is effectively fulfilling its designated responsibilities and optimizing its available resources.
An examination of the USADF budget elucidates its role in bolstering both US foreign policy and African development goals. It facilitates the alignment of budgetary allocations with the broader objectives of promoting economic growth, reducing poverty, and enhancing regional stability. When legislators have a solid grasp of the budget, they are able to spend resources sensibly and single out areas of the economy that can benefit from more financing or reorganization. This strategy can guarantee that the United States African Development Foundation (USADF) remains responsive to the changing demands and issues that African communities face, making it easier for the agency to maximize the effectiveness of its programs.
Organizational History, Purpose, and Goals
The African Development Foundation or ADF is a government agency that is independent from the United States that was established in 1980 by the 95th U.S. Congress. ADF was first introduced in 1977 to amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to allow ADF to strengthen the friendship connection between the United States and the people of Africa as well as assisting in African development. The mission of this agency is to promote, support, and invest in community based grassroots development in Africa. The history of ADF is engulfed in the recognition of the power that sustainable development in Africa is most effective by empowering local organizations and communities to address their own challenges. ADF uses a heavy reliance on sustainable solutions and self-reliance which makes it distinct from traditional development agencies. The purpose of ADF is to support community-led projects in Africa specifically in sub-Saharan regions, across a variety of areas, including education, clean energy, health care, and agriculture. Joining forces with cooperatives and local organizations allows ADF to continue to reduce poverty, improve quality of life and build economic opportunities . ADF focuses on development by the community and aids the commitment to long-term, highly impactful change.
ADF has displayed excellent adaptability traits in regards to the constant evolution of political, social, and economic changed and challenges in Africa over the years. From a political perspective, the ADF collaborated with over 10 different African governments using something called The USADF Partnership Advantage. This partnership enables the 10 African governments to ensure “Matching Funds African host governments match USADF, U.S. interagency, and private sector and foundation contributions to extend the impact of programs across Africa. Speed USADF’s on the ground network of local implementing partners provides local project management capabilities to quickly ramp up new program initiatives. Trust USADF systems provide strong performance tracking and reliable funds accountability reporting that ensures partners’ funds are used as intended and consistent with the program goals and objectives. USADF has an established grant auditing process, which is an integral part of the Foundation’s grant monitoring program, and audited 307 grants between 2015 and 2019” . For example, this impact report uses Senegal by mentioning the part Senegal is playing in the alliance. According to the Impact report, “A five-year, $10 million matching pledge to invest in women and youth entrepreneurs, farmer cooperatives, producer associations, and small- and medium-sized enterprises that create jobs and improve food security”. Socially the ADF has adapted its approach to keep up with the ever-changing African society. With a rapid growing population, it is essential that social challenges get addressed quickly and strategically to be more efficient with the spreading the impact. For example, as previously mentioned the ADF collaborated with 10 other African governments to have a larger impact. This shows how the ADF is striving to accommodate a vastly growing population (Fon, 2023). Economically the African Development Foundation has been consistently adapting to the economic changes.
They support entrepreneurial ambitions as well as promoting economic excellence beyond traditional agencies. ADF mentions that they grow and scale African enterprises and entrepreneurs who improve lives and livelihoods . As the economies in Africa continue to diversify, expand and integrate into global markets, the intervention with ADF emphasizes the importance of job creation and private sector development which addresses the needs of the evolving economy.
The USDAF impact report a new policy direction other than the traditional model or direction. On page 8 of the report there is a table that compares the traditional model to the USADF model. The traditional model uses a top down approach that practices implementation and relies on capital gain and donors. Opposed to the USADF model that uses a bottom up approach that practices co-creation as well as it being community and locally led..
Budget Process
The United States government require for agencies to complete a six-step process before getting budgets approved. Before getting into the steps, it is important to note that the budget planning begins a year before the budget goes into effect. According to the USA Government The Federal Budget Process the first step is for the federal agency to create a budget request then submit it to the White House Office of Management and Budget or (OMB). After step 1 the OMB then references the requests of the agencies as a budget proposal for the president is being developed. Once it is reviewed by the president, he then submits the budget proposal to congress earlier the following year. When that happens, the proposed budget is then split among 12 subcommittees and they hold hearings. Each subcommittee is responsible for funding different government functions such as water, energy or defense spending. The next step would then be for the House and Senate to create their own budget resolutions, which has to be merged and negotiated. Both houses must pass one single version of each funding bill. The final step in the budget process is for congress to send the approved funding bills to the president to sign or veto .
According to USADF FY 2014 Congressional Budget Justification Table 1 page 9 the budget type used by the ADF appears to be a line item budget. There is also a Table 6: FY 2024 Comprehensive Budget Summary Plan includes a line item description of where federal as well as external funds are being allocated to. This table also compares the allocation of the resources for the same expenses in previous years. The main function for a line item budget is to ensure that the money is being spent on what the money was allocated for .
It provides a clear image of how public monies are being utilized, which makes it easier for the general public, as well as people in government, to evaluate and comprehend government expenditure. When spending is broken down into its parts, members of the public can better comprehend exactly how the money they provide to the government is being spent. This, in turn, fosters a greater sense of accountability and trust among citizens in their government.
When there are line items in the budget, resource allocation works out more effectively as well. They make it feasible for decision-makers to prioritize spending in accordance with the specific requirements of a variety of initiatives or departments by providing the relevant information in a standardized format. This hints that the limited available resources could be devoted toward efforts that will optimize their impact to the greatest extent possible (Gill et al., 2022). For instance, if a government agency is forced to reduce spending due to a budget deficit, the decision-makers at the agency can examine the line items and pick where to make savings without compromising the quality of key services.
Line item budgets also make financial forecasting and planning easier. Agencies and organizations are able to evaluate trends and estimate future financial needs by comparing the current budget figures with existing data. This data guarantees that resources are accessible to fulfill ongoing commitments and obligations and is essential for long-term planning.
Assessing the success of government initiatives or services may also be done with the use of the line item budgeting technique. The budget for each program can be divided into line items, which makes it easier to evaluate which activities are most cost-effective. Decision-makers are able to determine which projects are effectively producing results and which may require reorganization or modifications.
Nevertheless, several things could be improved with line item budgets. Because they demand an exacting degree of detail, they can take a long time to design and maintain. Furthermore, it is occasionally difficult to comprehend the wider picture and make strategic decisions when preoccupied with specific line items. Opponents contend that departments may adopt a “use it or lose it” mentality as a result of line item budgeting, spending all of their funds to stave off future cuts rather than allocating resources more wisely (Sachs et al., 2022).
Within the framework of the U.S. government’s budgetary process, line item budgeting is essential to guaranteeing that public monies are effectively allotted, expended, and reported. The budget process entails several steps, as was indicated in the original definition, starting with agency budget requests and ending with the president’s ultimate approval or veto. Because they include a comprehensive account of how monies are utilized, line item budgets are essential to this process because they allow the executive branch and Congress to examine the spending thoroughly.
Federal agencies draft their budget requests as the first step in the U.S. federal budget process. These requests are thorough, outlining the amount required for different initiatives, programs, and operating expenses. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in the White House receives these requests. As it evaluates and compiles requests from other agencies into a complete budget plan for the president, the OMB is a vital component of the budgeting process.
The OMB can now clearly see how the monies are supposed to be used by breaking down agency requests into specific line items thanks to the line item budget format. The OMB’s evaluation and its function in influencing the president’s budget plan depend heavily on this specificity.
After the budget proposal has been examined and approved by the president, Congress is asked to evaluate and consider it further. Twelve congressional subcommittees, each in charge of financing a distinct government function—such as defense, energy, or water—split up the proposed budget. During this stage, the line item budget plays an even bigger role since each subcommittee looks over and hears testimony on the particular allocations within their purview.
Congress can carefully examine and discuss the budgetary allotments for each region using a line item budget, ensuring that public monies are going to the places where they are most needed. This thorough approach improves the budgeting process’s accountability and openness.
The House and Senate’s development of budget resolutions is a crucial component of the federal budget process in the United States. The budget priorities of each house are outlined in these resolutions, which are then subject to compromise and reconciliation to create a unified financing measure. Line item budgets are used in this approach to help reconcile the disparities between the proposals from the two chambers and precisely track spending. The authorized financial measures are then sent by Congress to the president for signature or veto as the final stage in the budgetary process. At this point, the line item budget style is still essential since it guarantees that the president is fully aware of how money is allocated. When deciding whether to veto or approve the budget legislation, the president can use this information to make an informed judgment.
To sum up, the line item budget format plays a vital role in the U.S. federal budget process by guaranteeing accountability, transparency, and efficient use of resources. It enables a thorough analysis of expenses, enabling fine-grained monitoring and evaluation of government spending. This method guarantees that public monies are used as planned, not just by providing the framework for the budget proposal but also by directing the discussions in Congress. Even though line-item budgets present certain difficulties, they are an important part of the budgeting process in the U.S. government and other sectors because they promote accountability and educated decision-making.
Revenue and Expenditure
The goal of the independent U.S. government organization known as the United States African Development Foundation (USADF) is to promote social and economic advancement in African countries. Examining the agency’s funding sources and expense categories is crucial to comprehend how it operates and meets its objectives (Summit, 2022).
The United States federal government is the main source of funding for USADF. Being a U.S. government agency, it is primarily dependent on money from Congress to support its operations and development initiatives in African nations. The U.S. government’s commitment to supporting USADF’s efforts, which aim to promote economic growth, empowerment, and sustainable development in Africa, is reflected in these allocations, which are essential parts of the federal budget. Within the framework of the U.S. federal budgeting process, there are multiple procedures involved in obtaining financing for the USADF. The agency starts this process by putting together budget requests that include all of the money it needs to carry out its objectives (Summit, 2022).
The U.S. government budget’s broader category of foreign aid and international development includes funding for the USADF. This category includes funding for several international aid and development groups, with USADF being one of the main players. The amount of money granted to USADF under this budget area is determined by various criteria, including the agency’s past performance, the priorities stated by the chief executive and lawmakers, and the greater foreign policy and economic growth objectives of the United States in Africa. While the U.S. federal government’s appropriations serve as USADF’s primary financing source, the organization may get extra money from different avenues (Summit, 2022). These could include partnerships with businesses in the financial industry or other sectors (NGOs), foundations, and organizations worldwide. These extra resources are carefully used to improve USADF’s ability to carry out its objective and assist more beneficiaries in African nations. But it’s crucial to emphasize that the U.S. federal government still provides the majority of USADF’s funding.
The USADF invests in a broad range of projects, programs, and activities targeted at promoting economic development in African countries. These expenses fall into a number of important categories:
Funding and Technical Assistance: Community-based organizations, cooperatives, and businesses in Africa can apply for funding from the USADF. These awards are intended for initiatives that raise residents’ standards of living, promote economic expansion, and create jobs. Additionally, the USADF provides grantees with capacity-building support and technical assistance to guarantee the successful execution of their initiatives.
Investment in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs): The United States-African Development Fund (USADF) makes active investments in SMEs in Africa, frequently in partnership with other institutions or financiers. The investments, as mentioned earlier, are intended to stimulate corporate expansion, increase market accessibility, and stimulate economic growth within designated target areas.
Training and Capacity Building: The organization offers a range of programs aimed at improving the abilities and know-how of regional cooperatives, businesses, and associations—these efforts to increase capacity cover project management, business development, and financial management.
Collaborations and Partnerships: The United States Army Forces maintains partnerships with a wide variety of institutions, such as private sector companies, international organizations, NGOs, and local governments. Costs related to forming partnerships, their coordination, and the execution of cooperative initiatives is included in this expenditure category.
Monitoring and Assessment: The USADF sets aside funds to keep an eye on and assess the results of its projects and programs. This entails monitoring the development and results of initiatives that get funding to make sure they are accomplishing their objectives and improving the lives of the people they benefit.
Costs of Administration and Operation: The USADF incurs costs of administration and operation much like any other organization. These include payroll, rent for the office, utilities, and other incidental expenses necessary to keep the agency operating profitably.
Outreach and Public Engagement: The USADF allots funds to publicize its programs, interact with stakeholders, and further its objective. Public relations campaigns, outreach programs, and marketing are examples of activities that fall under this category.
The strategic priorities of USADF, in addition to the unique requirements and opportunities in the nations and regions in which the agency functions, dictate how money is distributed among these several areas. The main goal is to make the most of the funding and support provided by USADF in order to empower local communities and promote sustainable economic growth (Summit, 2022).
The USADF is steadfastly dedicated to providing value for the money it spends and making sure the resources it acquires are applied properly and efficiently. To evaluate the results of its projects, the organization uses strict monitoring and evaluation procedures. This enables data-driven decision-making that continuously enhances and improves its programs. The USADF’s approach to carrying out its purpose is exemplified by its commitment to impact and accountability.
To sum up, the United States African Development Foundation receives the majority of its funding from federal allocations made by the United States government. This promise is based on the federal budgeting process. The primary funding for USADF continues to be the U.S. government, even though additional funding from other sources increases its capability. The organization spends money on various projects, including partnerships, grants, investments in SMEs, capacity building, administrative expenses, monitoring and evaluation, and public involvement. These expenses are in line with USADF’s objective to support economic development and growth in African nations, demonstrating its commitment to positively impacting local people while making effective and efficient use of its resources.
In summary, the United States African Development Foundation (USADF) is essential to the advancement of African development because of its steadfast support of community-based projects and entrepreneurship. The agency’s budgetary allocations, financing sources, important initiatives, and their effects have all been made clearer by this budget study. The USADF’s dependence on government funding demonstrates how committed the US is to advancing African development. The agency’s many programs, included in the FY22 Operating Plan, empower regional communities and stimulate internal economic growth. In spite of obstacles and limitations, the USADF persists in its efforts to alleviate poverty and promote sustainable development. It is obvious that the agency’s efforts support regional stability and uphold American leadership in international development on a global scale. In light of this, the USADF must continue to get funding, as it is an investment in social justice, economic expansion, and global diplomacy in addition to African development, all of which contribute to a more promising future for Africa and the rest of the globe.
Gill, C. R., Lawson, M. L., & Morgenstern, E. M. (2022). Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2020 Budget and Appropriations. Congressional Research Service.
Fon, N. N. A. (2023). Public diplomacy and civil society penetration: The new’scramble for Africa’. In Public Diplomacy and Civil Society Organisations (pp. 29-40). Routledge.
Summit, G. D. (2022). Commitments.
Sachs, J. D., Kroll, C., Lafortune, G., Fuller, G., & Woelm, F. (2022). Sustainable development report 2022. Cambridge University Press.
African development foundation. THE UNITED STATES AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION. (n.d.).