management case study and need guidance to help me learn.
I’m working on a business assignment (quality Management), and need guidance to help me learn. The attachment is regarding the final assignment for MGT424 subject contains some questions. I need it on Monday 6th of November 2023. The assignment must be Microsoft word.
(Please follow the guidelines for this assignment).
College of Administrative and Financial Sciences
Quality Management (MGT 424)
Due Date: 2/12/2023 @ 23:59
For Instructor’s Use only
General Instructions –PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY
The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder.
Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted.
Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented; marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page.
Students must mention question number clearly in their answer.
Late submission will NOT be accepted.
Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions.
All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism).
Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted.
The Assignment`s learning Outcomes:
In the 3rd assignment, the students are required to read thoughtfully the Using Six Sigma DMAIC to improve the quality of the production process: case study , and answer the related questions, upon successful completion of the assignment the student should be able to:
Recognize the importance of quality management theory, principles, and practices applied in businesses on national and international levels.(CLO1)
Use quality improvement tools and practices for continuous improvement to achieve the organizational change and transformation ( CLO3)
Develop analytical skills of identifying pitfalls, or quality concerns through assimilated and strategic planning.(CLO4)
Instructions to access the case study:
Using Six Sigma DMAIC to improve the quality of The production process: a case study , Monika Smętkowska, Beata Mrugalska*Instructions to read the case study’
Access the below link to download directly the case study PDF:
Using Six Sigma DMAIC to improve the quality of the production process: a case study
This case study discusses the application of six sigma as one of the common tools to improve the quality and practice continues improvements. The paper is supported by practical example of the DMAIC implementation ( one of the Six sigma methods), which presents the efficiency of such practice on the processes quality level. Read the case, by using your critical thinking skills answer the following questions:
Using your own words, explain in brief the idea behind six-sigma concept, and how it does benefit the business? ( 2.5 Mark) ( 100 -150 words)
Describe the main stages of DMAIC as indicated in the case study. ( 2.5) ( 100 – 150 words)
From your point of view, which one of these stage is more critical, and Why? ( 2.5 Mark). ( 100 – 150 words)
Assess the application of DMAIC on the company ( production process) in term of its implementation and results efficiency ( 2.5 mark ) ( 100 – 150 words)
Important Notes: –
For each question, you need to answer not more than 150 Words.
Support your answers with course material concepts, principles, and theories from the textbook and scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles etc.
Use APA style for writing references.
ZESZYTY NAUKOWE POLITECHNIKI ŚLĄSKIEJ 2018 Seria: ORGANIZACJA I ZARZĄDZANIE z. 119 QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN PRODUCTION ENTERPRISE. 1 CASE STUDY 2 Monika KONIECZNA 3 Politechnika Poznańska, Wydział Inżynierii Zarządzania; email@example.com 4 Abstract. The main objective of this paper is to determine the meaning of quality in present 5 enterprise as well as its influence for the continuous development. There is shown comparison 6 of chosen quality management conceptions as well as description of one of them, Six Sigma 7 which is an innovative approach to quality. Presented case study was developed in a printing 8 company specialized in production of books in hard covers. This study presents the 9 proposition of improvement to increase the effectiveness of the production process. 10 Keywords: quality management, process improvement. 11 1. Introduction 12 In recent years, it may be noticed a huge pressure on enterprises to maintain and develop 13 high quality level in organization, and at the same time to decrease ineffectiveness and reduce 14 the number of errors. In order to gain and keep customers, organizations have to compete with 15 each other. Sometimes it may be difficult, because present enterprises show very good 16 adaptation to upcoming changes. It is essential to understand that the most important in 17 quality management is to satisfy customers’ needs, because the customers are the factor which 18 drive the market economy nowadays. There are many different conceptions, methods and 19 tools that may be used to maintain the good quality level and help in continuous development 20 in the company. One example of well-known conception is Six Sigma which is an innovative 21 method introduced in Motorola by Bob Galvin and Bill Smith in the middle of the eighties. 22 The article focuses on presenting the term of quality and emphasize its role in continuous 23 development in production enterprise. It also shows differences between conceptions of 24 quality management and describe one of them in details. Knowing all main conceptions, 25 methods and tools the company can freely decide which is adequate to its brand and activities 26 and which to use in specific situations. Presented case study shows the bottleneck which 27 appears during production process in one of the printing company. There is shown the whole 28
152 M. Konieczna analysis of the problem as well as proposition of improvement which may be introduce in 1 order to increase the effectiveness of the whole process. 2 2. Quality improvement 3 There are many different definitions of quality which can be found in literature 4 (Słowiński, 1996). Generally, quality is defined as the sum of characteristics of a product or 5 service which gives the opportunity to meet the customer’s needs (Rogoziński, 2000). This 6 definition can be completed by the definition of quality management, as a continuous 7 improvement of everything which is performed in the organization in aspects of quality using 8 well-known methods and with the participation of all employees. According to ISO norm 9 9000, quality is “degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirement” (PN-EN 10 ISO 9000:2006 – polish version). 11 The evolution of the term quality may be presented as follows: 12 Quality is efficiency in use – J.M. Juran, 1970, 13 Quality meets customers’ needs – T. Ishikawa, 1980, 14 Quality is something when missing means loss for everybody – G. Taguchi, 1980, 15 Quality means zero defects – P.B. Crosby, 1985 (Rączka, 1993). 16 Nowadays, it may be seen that quality is one of the basic factors which decides about 17 company’s competitiveness. Quickly changes environment requires from enterprises easily 18 reacting for them. The company is forced to search for new conceptions and methods of 19 development. Contemporary environment is characterized by process globalization, 20 shortening the life-cycle of products and technology. Scientific and technological 21 development, increased level of education, easy migration of all resources, high distribution 22 of technology and information, are the chances for organization to achieve better position in 23 the market and being more competitive (Łukasiński, 2013). 24 High-quality products and services give the company competitive advantage in domestic 25 and international market. Good quality increases productivity, while reducing costs, but what 26 is the most important, it creates satisfied customers who are more willing to buy the products 27 again and will also recommend the company to other buyers. When mass production has 28 started, there was a need to introduce quality control to the process and create separate quality 29 departments. During 1950’ W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran were invited to Japan to 30 help the companies in quality management. They strongly believed in importance of quality 31 and using statistical tools in order to improve quality. Nowadays, everyone may learn from 32 the Japanese that it is impossible not to pay attention to quality and that taking care of quality 33 issues is the responsibility of every employee in organization (Evans, 1992). 34
Quality improvement in production enterprise… 153 Quality improvement should be connected with a widely understood customer 1 satisfaction. However, sometimes it is really difficult to define the term of quality which may 2 be understood in several ways, because it is an individual and subjective evaluation of every 3 client (Bielawa, 2011). If the quality is assumed as a totality of meeting expectations relative 4 to acquired product or service it may happen that the same purchase will have different 5 evaluation from a different customer. Despite these variances it is worth to take care of 6 quality aspects. The issue is particularly important for everything which goes directly to the 7 customer. Therefore, it is observed at this time that in management practice many companies 8 tend to implement variety of instruments related to quality improvement (Lenik, 2011). 9 Starting from popularization of technical control in production enterprises, from XX 10 century intensive development of organization form, methods and range of quality 11 management has started. Especially, the last decades brought new conceptions in this field. 12 It is difficult to date particular phases of quality management, because they develop 13 differently in other countries or branch of economy. 14 Quality management can be divided into stages: 15 technical control – it takes place in production enterprise, the objective of the control 16 is final product and its technical aspects, 17 quality control – this stage claims that quality cannot be extorted from technical 18 controls, but it has to be created in enterprise, the responsibility for quality should be 19 taken from management and employees, 20 quality development – this stage contains more functions of management, controls and 21 corrections, planning and control stimulating (Woźniak, 2008). 22 Main conception and standards of quality management are presented in the table below. 23 Data which may be compared are timeliness, range and dominant feature. 24 Table 1. 25 Comparison of chosen quality management conceptions 26 Conception/Standard Timeliness Range Dominant feature Quality management system ISO 9000 Used since the 80’ XX century until today Used in every organization. There is no geographic, political and cultural boundaries Formal and bureaucratic, but allowing freedom in the interpretation and application Standard compliance-requirements of industry standards Used since the 70’ XX century until today Range limited to industry Formal and bureaucratic, not flexible TQM Known since the 80’ XX century until today Known and introduced to organizations all over the world Appeal for common commitment and improvement Kaizen Known since the 80’ XX century until today Used in organizations in which Japanese culture of work is accepted Similar to TQM Six Sigma Known since the 80’ XX century, but widely disseminated only from last 10 years For now limited, used mostly in big organizations Based on planning of venture which goal is to measure the effectiveness of activity
154 M. Konieczna cont. table 1 1 SPC (Statistical Process Control) Beginnings from the 30’ XX century (Shewhart), but widely known during 70’ and 80’ Used in organizations with mass production, now a fixed component in automotive industry standards Based on statistical tools and methods Source: Hamrol, 2007. 2 3 To achieve the goals and realize the tasks of every organization it is needed to have some 4 funds that enable to form the quality of the products at every stage of the product life cycle. 5 In literature different techniques and methods supporting quality management may be found. 6 They may be divided into: 7 Conceptions and principles of quality management – by using the principles of quality 8 management in practice the organization can strengthen its position on the market, 9 increase the revenue and achieve other benefits. They help in establishing the strategy 10 and goals of the company. The examples can be TQM, Six Sigma or Kaizen. 11 Tools of quality management – in quality management the strategic and operational 12 decisions at every stage of production process should be made based on facts. To gain 13 actual data, tools of quality management are essential. They are usually divided into 14 traditional and new tools. The examples are a block diagram, Ishikawa diagram, 15 Pareto diagram, histogram, correlation graphs, control card. 16 Methods of quality management – the methods are more complex than tools. Using 17 methods of quality management requires knowledge from statistics, data processing 18 and consequence. In every method the set of tools are used. The examples can be: 19 Quality Function Deployment, value analysis, FMEA, Statistical Process Control 20 (Hamrol, 2017). 21 Although the term of quality is difficult to clearly define and measure, it is essential to 22 take care of it in an organization. The main determinant of quality nowadays is a customer 23 and his needs and expectations which should be met in order to achieve his satisfaction. The 24 companies need to focus on development and improvement of all the processes and in general 25 its functioning. Different types of quality management system may be found in different 26 organizations. It is important to choose the best practice adequate to the branch and activity of 27 the company. 28 3. The concept of Six Sigma 29 Six Sigma is an implementation of proven quality in organization. Sigma is a Greek letter 30 used in statistics to measure the variability in the process. The performance of the company is 31 measured by the sigma level in their process. Most of the companies agree on three or four 32
Quality improvement in production enterprise… 155 sigma performance levels as a norm, but it may be seen that in these cases the processes 1 create between 6210 and 66807 defects per million opportunities. In order to meet all the 2 customers’ needs and expectations that are still increasing, the Six Sigma program may be 3 introduced and implemented in organization. At the Six Sigma level there are 3.4 defects for 4 million opportunities. Six Sigma is based on reliable and valuable methods that are commonly 5 known. It refuses the whole complexity which characterizes Total Quality Management 6 (TQM). It was counted that there were around 400 different methods and tools connected with 7 TQM which may be overwhelming and difficult to implement and use. Six Sigma based on 8 smaller amount of methods and tools and trains leaders who are known as Master Black Belts 9 and have theoretical and practical knowledge about proven methods (Pyzdek, 2013). 10 Six Sigma may be characterized by six principles: 11 concentration on customer, 12 based on facts, 13 process approach for improvements and management, 14 proactive management, 15 cooperation without boundaries, 16 toleration of defects, but set for perfection (www.projekty.4innovations.pl/2009/08/ 17 charakterystyka-metody-six-sigma). 18 Sigma Performance Scale is presented below in the form of table. It shows the defects per 19 million opportunities, percentage of good products and estimated cost or poor quality 20 according to Sigma level which may occur in organization. 21 Table 2. 22 Sigma Performance Scale 23 Sigma level Defects for million opportunities (DPMO) Percentage of good products Estimated Cost or Poor Quality (% Revenue) 1 sigma 690 000 31% >40% 2 sigma 308 537 (uncompetitive enterprises) 69.14% 30-40% 3 sigma 66 807 93.32% 20-30% 4 sigma 6 210 (average enterprises) 99.38% 15-20% 5 sigma 233 99.97% 10-15% 6 sigma 3.4 (world’s leaders) 99.99% <10% Source: Watson, 2005. 24 25 The goals of Six Sigma are connected with eliminating the number of defects, taking care 26 of the customers’ satisfaction, elimination of time in production cycle, reduction of costs 27 connected with mistakes and reparation and improvement of the image of the company in the 28 market. Taking into consideration the functioning of all aspects of enterprises the main tasks 29 of Six Sigma program are: a measure of customer satisfaction which has to be defined at an 30 every stage of the project, determination of the quality index as well as the estimated number 31 156 M. Konieczna of products with defects. After each cycle of DMAIC phases, gained results should be 1 analyzed and actions to reduce the time in one cycle should be taken (Aruleswaran, 2009). 2 Although Six Sigma is usually perceived as a method which may bring many profits to an 3 organization there are some myths connected with the perception of its functioning which 4 may result in resistance of workers before its implementation. The first myth claims that it 5 may work only in manufacturing organizations. Although, before Six Sigma was much more 6 popular in the production companies, in the recent time there are a lot of publications about 7 implementation and using Six Sigma in other processes such as administration. Another 8 example of the myth is that Six Sigma ignores the needs of the customers and focuses only on 9 the benefits for the organization. It is rather a wrong interpretation, because every customer 10 brings profit to enterprise. Many people also think that Six Sigma is just another quality 11 program using complicated statistical methods and tools, but actually it is a way of managing 12 the whole organization and maintaining the best quality level. When implementing Six Sigma 13 with full awareness it may bring different profits even in short period of time (Breyfogle, 14 Cupello, Meadows, 2001). 15 One of the methods which supports Six Sigma is DMAIC cycle which based on process 16 improvement. DMAIC is an acronym comes from Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, 17 Control. All these five phases are connected which each other and help to order the whole 18 improvement process. The goal of the first phase Define is to identify the problem which will 19 be an issue to solve in the next stages. It is also about defining all needed resources, processes 20 in organization and support from management. It is important to divide the processes into 21 external and internal, and firstly focus on elimination of the external ones. The next step 22 which is Measure, is about collecting data and information which will be needed in the next 23 stages to compare the results and to show the achieved progress. The most important in this 24 phase is to check if there is enough data to measure. In Analyze stage different analysis are 25 performed using various tools and methods of quality management. It is needed to perform 26 process capability. The main goal of Improve phase is to create an action plan which should 27 be implemented in order to achieve planned goals, while the last stage, Control is about 28 continuous verification if implemented changes bring expected profitability (Shankar, 2009). 29 4. Case study 30 The research study was done in 2018 in the printing company which is specialized in 31 production of books, especially in hard covers. The enterprise was found in 1989 and 32 nowadays it is one of the leaders in printing industry not only in Poland, but also abroad. 33 It offers wide range of products which means that the production process is diversified and 34 advanced. The main customers of the company are the biggest publishing houses from Poland 35 Quality improvement in production enterprise… 157 and other European countries. The company owns three production halls and offices. 1 It employs more than 300 workers which perform their activities on different production 2 machines. 3 The enterprise develops quickly, invests in new machinery and production halls. In 2014 it 4 received ISO 9001 and 14001 certificates. It also got Forest Stewardship Council certificate 5 that confirms the responsible attitude for environmental issues and practical care about 6 forests. The company has already implemented different tools of quality management to 7 support the production and eliminate unnecessary activities. However, there are still some 8 downtime in production process which should be improved. The implementation of lean 9 management was supposed to bring different profits to organization, but what is more to 10 deliver the product to the customers in shortest possible lead time and according to their needs 11 and requirements. 12 Due to the fact that competitiveness on the market is high, the enterprise wants to increase 13 its efficiency and provide products with higher quality. At the same it tries to maintain the 14 same amount of resources and machinery. In order to monitor implemented lean management 15 tools and methods continuous control is used in daily activities. The companies nowadays 16 have to attract their customers by demonstrating the ability to meet their expectations and 17 offering highest possible quality of products and services. 18 The first phase of research study started with the meeting in the company where the 19 processes and its bottlenecks were discussed. Also the management board took part in this 20 discussion. After deep analysis of the whole process it was seen that there are some downtime 21 of the production on specific printing machines. It was observed that two machines has lower 22 efficiency than others and also that the efficiency level is not stable, but it varies depends on 23 different seasons. The main problem was clearly defined in the form to be understood by 24 everybody involved in the quality improvement process. Based on the discussion with 25 management board, the needed resources were also defined. The idea is to offer the customer 26 the product with highest possible quality and deliver it on time. That is why it is important to 27 analyze and implement some solutions in order to increase the effectiveness of the process 28 and eliminate bottlenecks which appears on production line. 29 Measured data, which are the process capacity, are presented in the form of graphs below. 30 It concerns the amount of printed products on two specific equipment Roland IV and Roland 31 V which are four-colors printing machines used in the technique called offset printing. The 32 data are taken from years 2014-2017 and presented month by month for comparison of 33 particular period in different years. From the first graph it may be seen that production 34 process is not stable and varies a lot. There are some fluctuations which appeared on machine 35 Roland IV. The bigger amount of products were produced in the second half of the year. 36 158 M. Konieczna 1 Figure 1. The amount of production on machine Roland IV, month by month in years 2015-2017 2 3 Second graph presents the amount of produced goods on machine Roland V. It may be 4 seen that there are a lot of instability of the production process, similar to previously 5 presented machine. The highest production was in July 2017 which may be surprising, while 6 the lowest was in July 2016. It is well visible that there is no rule which determine the level of 7 production and process efficiency. 8 9 Figure 2. The amount of production on machine Roland V, month by month in years 2015-2017. 10 11 From the graph below it may be noticed that the quantity of printed products was always 12 bigger on machine Roland IV. In general, the lowest production was in 2015 on machine 13 Roland V while the biggest production was in 2014 on machine Roland IV. 14 Quality improvement in production enterprise… 159 1 Figure 3. The comparison of production on machines Roland IV and V, month by month in years 2 2015-2017. 3 4 Analyze phase started with discussion about measured information and data. After 5 collecting all ideas about the reasons of downtimes in the production processes, gained issues 6 were divided into few categories of causes, such as man, method and machine. From the data 7 it was seen that there are a lot of fluctuations in the printing process which may be due to the 8 fact that there is a significant rotation of the employees working on production line. Usually, 9 during holiday season when the human resources are limited there is a help from students 10 internships. Continuous rotation results in additional time spent on trainings. Another cause of 11 variability of the process is connected with lack of clear work instructions concerning process 12 of production and setups. It is not defined for workers which activities should be perform in 13 order or which processes may be eliminated. Also technical state and condition of the 14 machine have influence on the process performance. The machinery used in printing company 15 is old, so its maintenance requires costs and time which has a big impact on production 16 effectiveness. 17 Improvement proposition concerns all three aspects which are the main reasons for 18 downtimes on machines Roland IV and V. First proposition is connected with performing 19 SMED on printing machines to eliminate unnecessary activities and reduce the time spent on 20 setups. Single minute means that the time needed for a setup is with a single digit. In the 21 printing company it was observed that there was no procedure how to do changeover in the 22 way to be the most effective. After preparing correct work instructions SMED may be 23 implemented in production process. Another proposition how to increase the effectiveness of 24 production performed on the printing machines is to decrease rotation of workers. The key to 25 long-term employee retention is the recruitment process. It is very important to look for 26 a specific potential in candidates during interviews. After hiring qualified employees, the 27 company have to face much more difficult issue - how to keep an employee and motivate to 28 develop and work effectively. One idea is to introduce the bonus system for workers to thank 29 160 M. Konieczna them for their engagement. The last proposition of improvement is to prepare good work 1 instructions which will help to identify internal and external activities, eliminate unnecessary 2 operations and organize work to be most effective. 3 Very important in improvement process is control which is the last phase of DMAIC 4 cycle. Control should be continuous in order to be effective and to check future process 5 performance. It may be done by creating a control plan which help in measuring the results 6 and checking if the estimated progress and set goals were achieved. Control is the process 7 which is essential in measuring if the implemented changes bring profits to the organization. 8 It may be done by comparing the performance from analyze phase and after implementation 9 of improvements. 10 5. Conclusions 11 Taking all into consideration it is essential to take care of quality aspects in enterprise. 12 Nowadays, the environment is changing at the rapid rate and that is why the ability to quickly 13 react to upcoming changes is very important. However, the term quality is difficult to define, 14 it is essential to satisfy the customers’ needs, because they are the factors which drive the 15 economy. The history of quality and different conceptions and tools may contribute to better 16 understanding the development and evolution of quality management. In different 17 organizations there may be found different ways of quality development and improvement. 18 The enterprise has to decide by itself which method is adequate for it and which one brings 19 the best profits. One of the presented methods is Six Sigma which based on DMAIC cycle. 20 Using this methodology in the printing company helps in defining and measuring the main 21 problem which occurs on production line. Analyze of the issue is essential to create the 22 improvement proposition which was presented in order to increase the effectiveness of the 23 process. It may be achieved if there is continuous control. 24 Bibliography 25 1. Aruleswaran, A. (2009). Changing with Lean Six Sigma. Puchong, Selangor: LSS 26 Academy. 27 2. Bielawa, A. (2011). Postrzeganie i rozumienie jakości - przegląd definicji jakości. Zeszyty 28 Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego. Studia i Prace Wydziału Nauk Ekonomicznych 29 i Zarządzania. Szczecin. 30 Quality improvement in production enterprise… 161 3. Breyfogle, F., Cupello, J., Meadows, B. (2001). Managing Six Sigma. A Practical Guide 1 to Understanding, Assessing, and Implementing the Strategy That Yields Bottom-Line 2 Success. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 3 4. Evans, J. (1991). Statistical Process Control for Quality Improvement. A Training Guide 4 to Learning SPC. Upper Sandle River: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 5 5. Hamrol, A. (2007). Zarządzanie jakością z przykładami. Warszawa: PWN. 6 6. Lenik, P. (2011). Doskonalenie jakości w rodzimych organizacjach w kontekście 7 zagranicznych doświadczeń TQM. Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Oficerskiej Wojsk 8 Lądowych im. gen. T. Kościuszki. 9 7. Łukasiński, W. (2013). Proces kształtowania projakościowego zarządzania organizacją. 10 Zeszyty Naukowe UEK. 11 8. PN-EN ISO 9000:2006 – wersja polska. 12 9. Pyzdek, T. (2003). The Six Sigma Handbook. New York: The McGraw-Hill, Inc. 13 10. Rączka, M. (1993). Jakość totalna. Przegląd Odlewnictwa, 5. 14 11. Rogoziński, K. (2000). Nowy marketing usług. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Akademii 15 Ekonomicznej. 16 12. Shankar, R. (2009). Process Improvement. Using Six Sigma. A DMAIC Guide. Wisconsin: 17 ASQ Quality Press. 18 13. Słowiński, B. (1996). Podstawy badań i oceny niezawodności obiektów technicznych. 19 Koszalin: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Koszalińskiej. 20 14. Woźniak, D. (2008). Niektóre aspekty zarządzania jakością. Zeszyty Naukowe Instytutu 21 Ekonomii i Zarządzania. Koszalin: Politechnika Koszalińska. 22 15. www.projekty.4innovations.pl/2009/08/charakterystyka-metody-six-sigma, 01.12.2017. 23 CopyrightofScientificPapersofSilesianUniversityofTechnology.Organization&Management/ZeszytyNaukowePolitechnikiSlaskiej.SeriaOrganizacjiiZarzadzanieisthepropertyofSilesianTechnicalUniversity,Organisation&ManagementFacultyanditscontentmaynotbecopiedoremailedtomultiplesitesorpostedtoalistservwithoutthecopyrightholder'sexpresswrittenpermission.However,usersmayprint,download,oremailarticlesforindividualuse.